immunity law Britannica

immunity, in law, exemption or freedom from liability. In England and the United States legislators are immune from civil liability for statements made during legislative debate. They are also immune from criminal arrest, although they are subject to legal action for crime. French law and practice

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Royalty law Britannica

(4 days ago) Royalty, in law, the payment made to the owners of certain types of rights by those who are permitted by the owners to exercise the rights. The rights concerned are literary, musical, and artistic copyright; patent rights in inventions and designs; and rights in mineral deposits, including oil and

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Complaint American law Britannica

(5 days ago) Complaint, in law, the plaintiff’s initial pleading, corresponding to the libel in admiralty, the bill in equity, and the claim in civil law.The complaint, called in common law a declaration, consists of a title, a statement showing venue or jurisdiction, one or more counts containing a brief formal exposition of facts giving rise to the claim asserted, and a demand for relief.

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Interstate commerce United States law Britannica

(Just Now) constitutional law, the body of rules, doctrines, and practices that govern the operation of political communities. In modern times the most important political community has been the state. Modern constitutional law is the offspring of nationalism as well as of the idea that the state must protect certain fundamental rights…

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Talion law Britannica

(9 days ago) Talion, principle developed in early Babylonian law and present in both biblical and early Roman law that criminals should receive as punishment precisely those injuries and damages they had inflicted upon their victims. Many early societies applied this “eye-for-an-eye” principle literally. In

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Right-to-work law Britannica

(Just Now) Right-to-work law, in the United States, any state law forbidding various union-security measures, particularly the union shop, under which workers are required to join a union within a specified time after they begin employment. The Taft–Hartley Act of 1947 outlawed not the union shop but the closed shop (which can hire union members only) everywhere in the United States.

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Blue law American history Britannica

(1 days ago) Blue law, in U.S. history, a law forbidding certain secular activities on Sunday. The name may derive from Samuel A. Peters’s General History of Connecticut (1781), which purported to list the stiff Sabbath regulations at New Haven, Connecticut; the work was printed on blue paper. A more probable

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Forgery law Britannica

(4 days ago) Forgery, in law, making of a false writing with an intent to defraud. Writing, to be forgery, must either have legal significance or be commonly relied upon in business transactions. It need not be handwriting; the law of forgery covers printing, engraving, and typewriting as well. In most

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German law Britannica

(3 days ago) In administrative law: The German system. Germany traditionally has had no council of state, but it does have a fully articulated system of special administrative courts. In the states, or Länder, there are lower administrative courts and superior administrative courts, and for the federation there is the Federal Administrative…. Read More

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Fee property law Britannica

(9 days ago) Fee, in modern common law, an estate of inheritance (land or other realty) over which a person has absolute ownership. The owner may put it virtually to any use—sell it, give it away, rent or lease it, mortgage it, or bequeath it. Originally, in feudal times, a fee was not so absolute. Its m

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Germanic law Britannica

(5 days ago) Germanic law, the law of the various Germanic peoples from the time of their initial contact with the Romans until the change from tribal to national territorial law. This change occurred at different times with different peoples. Thus some of the characteristics of Scandinavian legal collections

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Medieval law Britannica

(5 days ago) Other articles where Medieval law is discussed: acquittal: In the Middle Ages it was an obligation of an intermediate lord to protect his tenants against interference from his own overlord. The term is also used in contract law to signify a discharge or release from an obligation.

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French law Britannica

(3 days ago) In comparative law: 19th-century beginnings …Germany in 1829 and in France in 1834 to further a systematic study of foreign law. In France, the civil and mercantile laws of modern states were translated with “concordances” referring to the corresponding provisions of the French codes; and in England in 1850–52, Leone Levi published a work entitled…

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Reservation international law Britannica

(2 days ago) In international law: Treaties …are referred to as “reservations,” which are distinguished from interpretative declarations, which have no binding effect. States may make reservations to a treaty where the treaty does not prevent doing so and provided that the reservation is not incompatible with the treaty’s object and purpose.

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Ownership law Britannica

(2 days ago) property law: Unitary and nonunitary concepts of ownership In the civil-law tradition the ownership concept is understood in a unitary fashion. Civilians (including those in postcommunist legal systems such as Russia’s) commonly refer to the “triad of ownership,” which comprises the owner’s rights to possess, use, and dispose of a thing.

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Legal ethics Britannica

(5 days ago) Legal ethics, principles of conduct that members of the legal profession are expected to observe in their practice. They are an outgrowth of the development of the legal profession itself.. Background. Practitioners of law emerged when legal systems became too complex for all those affected by them to fully understand and apply the law. Certain individuals with the required ability mastered

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international law

(3 days ago) international law - international law - Jurisdiction: Jurisdiction refers to the power of a state to affect persons, property, and circumstances within its territory. It may be exercised through legislative, executive, or judicial actions. International law particularly addresses questions of criminal law and essentially leaves civil jurisdiction to national control.

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Disbarment law Britannica

(3 days ago) Disbarment, the process whereby an attorney is deprived of his license or privileges for failure to carry out his practice in accordance with established standards. Temporary suspension may be employed if some lesser punishment is warranted. Grounds for disbarment vary considerably from country to

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Dower law Britannica

(8 days ago) Dower, in common law, the life interest of a widow of a percentage (typically one-third) of the legal estates in real property owned by her husband at any time during the marriage. Originally there were varieties of dower (not to be confused with dowry) such as dower ad ostium ecclesiae ("at the

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Philosophy of law

(4 days ago) Philosophy of law - Philosophy of law - Thomas Hobbes: Among the most-influential philosophers of law from the early modern period was Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679), whose theory of law was a novel amalgam of themes from both the natural-law and command-theory traditions. He also offered some of the earliest criticisms of common-law theory, which would be developed significantly by theorists in

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Hearsay law Britannica

(Just Now) Hearsay, in Anglo-American law, testimony that consists of what the witness has heard others say. United States and English courts may refuse to admit testimony that depends for its value upon the truthfulness and accuracy of one who is neither under oath nor available for cross-examination. The

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Conflict of laws

(3 days ago) Choice of law. In its choice of the applicable law, the court that exercises jurisdiction determines which law to apply to a case that involves foreign parties, foreign transactions, or a number of foreign elements. In a simple world, the court would always apply its own law, the law of the forum (known in Latin as the lex fori).Indeed, some modern methodologies, particularly in the United

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Nationality international law Britannica

(2 days ago) Nationality, in law, membership in a nation or sovereign state. It is to be distinguished from citizenship (q.v.), a somewhat narrower term that is sometimes used to denote the status of those nationals who have full political privileges. Before an act of the U.S. Congress made them citizens, for

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bribery law Britannica

(Just Now) bribery, the act of promising, giving, receiving, or agreeing to receive money or some other item of value with the corrupt aim of influencing a public official in the discharge of his official duties. When money has been offered or promised in exchange for a corrupt act, the official involved need

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Receivership law Britannica

(5 days ago) Receivership, in law, the judicial appointment of a person, a receiver, to collect and conserve certain assets and to make distributions in accordance with judicial authorization. A receivership is properly an intermediate or incidental step toward some other principal objective and not generally

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Defendant law Britannica

(2 days ago) procedural law. In procedural law: Appearance of defendant and plaintiff. The summons or analogous document commands the defendant to respond to the complaint within a specified number of days after its service. In common-law systems, if a defendant fails to appear, he may suffer a “default” judgment. In civil-law systems the court….

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Guaranty and suretyship law Britannica

(1 days ago) Guaranty and suretyship, in law, assumption of liability for the obligations of another. In modern usage the term guaranty has largely superseded suretyship. Legal historians identify suretyship with situations that are quite outside the modern connotations of the term. For example, they use the

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Demurrer law Britannica

(1 days ago) Demurrer, in law, a process whereby a party hypothetically admits as true certain facts alleged by the opposition but asserts that they are not sufficient grounds for relief, or redress. A ruling on a demurrer can result in the quick disposition of a case resting on the point of law challenged in

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extradition law Britannica

(4 days ago) extradition, in international law, the process by which one state, upon the request of another, effects the return of a person for trial for a crime punishable by the laws of the requesting state and committed outside the state of refuge. Extraditable persons include those charged with a crime but

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mechanics Definition, Examples, Laws, & Facts Britannica

(4 days ago) Mechanics, branch of physics concerned with the motion of bodies under the action of forces, including the special case in which a body remains at rest. Historically, mechanics was among the first of the exact sciences to be developed. It may be divided into three branches: statics, kinematics, and kinetics.

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Disturbing the peace law Britannica

(3 days ago) Disorderly conduct, in law, intentional disturbing of the public peace and order by language or other conduct. It is a general term including various offenses that are usually punishable by minor penalties. Disorderly conduct may take the form of directly disturbing the peace, as when one…

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thermodynamics Laws, Definition, & Equations Britannica

(9 days ago) The second law of thermodynamics. Heat does not flow spontaneously from a colder region to a hotter region, or, equivalently, heat at a given temperature cannot be converted entirely into work. Consequently, the entropy of a closed system, or heat energy per unit temperature, increases over time toward some maximum value.

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blue sky law Definition, Securities, & Requirements

(5 days ago) Blue sky law, any of various U.S. state laws designed to regulate sales practices associated with securities (e.g., stocks and bonds). The term blue sky law originated from concerns that fraudulent securities offerings were so brazen and commonplace that issuers would sell building lots in the blue sky.. Blue sky laws typically require the registration of any securities sold in a state

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judicial restraint Definition, History, & Facts Britannica

(1 days ago) Judicial restraint, a procedural or substantive approach to the exercise of judicial review. As a procedural doctrine, the principle of restraint urges judges to refrain from deciding legal issues, and especially constitutional ones, unless the decision is necessary to the resolution of …

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Snyder v. Phelps law case Britannica

(8 days ago) Other articles where Snyder v. Phelps is discussed: Samuel A. Alito, Jr.: …opinions was his dissent in Snyder v. Phelps (2011). The case involved a claim of freedom of speech by members of Westboro Baptist Church, who had protested near the funeral of Matthew Snyder, a U.S. Marine, and subsequently were held liable for damages for intentionally inflicting emotional injury on his…

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guarantee Definition & Conditions Britannica

(2 days ago) guarantee, in law, a contract to answer for the payment of some debt, or the performance of some duty, in the event of the failure of another person who is primarily liable.The agreement is expressly conditioned upon a breach by the principal debtor. The debtor is not a party to the guarantee, and the guarantor is not a party to the principal obligation.

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Law of double negation logic Britannica

(5 days ago) Other articles where Law of double negation is discussed: formal logic: Logical manipulations in LPC: Similarly, because the law of double negation permits the deletion of a pair of consecutive negation signs, ∼(∃x) may be replaced by (∀x)∼, and ∼(∀x) by (∃x)∼.

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USA PATRIOT Act Facts, History, Acronym, & Controversy

(8 days ago) USA PATRIOT Act, U.S. legislation passed by Congress in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and signed into law by President George W. Bush in October 2001. It significantly expanded the search and surveillance powers of federal law

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Brnovich v. Democratic National Committee law case

(3 days ago) In Voting Rights Act. Eight years later, in Brnovich v.Democratic National Committee (2021), the Court further weakened the Voting Rights Act by finding that the law’s Section 2(a)—which prohibited any voting standard or procedure that “results in a denial or abridgement of the right of any citizen of the United States to…. Read More

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Friedrich Karl von Savigny Biography, Works, & Facts

(3 days ago) Friedrich Karl von Savigny, (born February 21, 1779, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]—died October 25, 1861, Berlin, Prussia), German jurist and legal scholar who was one of the founders of the influential “historical school” of jurisprudence.He advocated that the meaning and content of existing bodies of law be analyzed through research into their historical origins and modes of transformation.

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Contiguous zone international law Britannica

(8 days ago) In international law: Maritime spaces and boundaries. A contiguous zone—which must be claimed and, unlike territorial seas, does not exist automatically—allows coastal states to exercise the control necessary to prevent and punish infringements of customs, sanitary, fiscal, and immigration regulations within and beyond its territory or territorial sea.

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Hans Kelsen American scholar Britannica

(8 days ago) Hans Kelsen, Austrian-American legal philosopher, teacher, jurist, and writer on international law, who formulated a kind of positivism known as the “pure theory” of law. Kelsen was a professor at Vienna, Cologne, Geneva, and the German university in …

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neutrality Definition & Facts Britannica

(3 days ago) Under international law, this legal status gives rise to certain rights and duties between the neutral state and the belligerents. The laws concerning the rights and duties of neutrality are contained, for the most part, in the Declaration of Paris of 1856, Hague Convention V, 1907 (neutrality in land war), and Hague Convention XIII, 1907

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pedophilia Definition & Facts Britannica

(3 days ago) Pedophilia, in conventional usage, a psychosexual disorder characterized by sexual interest in prepubescent children or attempts to engage in sexual acts with prepubescent children. The term was replaced with ‘pedophilic disorder’ in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of …

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